Women in Science and Technology: 3000 BC - AD 1600

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"Woman teaches geometry." Illustration at the beginning of a medieval translation of Euclid's Elements (c. 1310 AD). Wikipedia
The list below is severely abbreviated, a fraction of women's total contributions to natural philosophy and technology, due to the scarcity of documented records, then societal barriers documenting such contributions, and to this Wiki's purview only up to the year 1600. Table is chronologically sorted. Click on the Name or Region banisters to sort names and regions into ascending or descending order. Warning to Google Chrome user: Unfortunately a bug in the browser disables the sorting banister. An additional region, "Southern" or S, indicates the south & southeast region centered at India. All years are anno domini (AD) unless otherwise noted with BC; date that includes c. is approximate, fl. is flourished, and d. is died. Subject abbreviation: astronomical = astr.; biological, botanical and zoological = biol.; chemical and alchemical = chem.; geological and geographical = geo.; medical, physiological, and anatomical = med.; physical or mechanical = phys. This page is still in development phase.

Contents

Chronology

Period Name Region Subject(s) For which noted
!a !a !a
~z ~z ~z
fl. 2640 BC Hsi, Ling-shih (Leizu) E Chinese empress claimed to have deduced the secret of silk worms. Developed process to remove cocoon thread, established cultivation farms, and weaved new cloth.
2285 BC - 2250 BC Enheduanna M astr. Contribution covered here
c. 350 BC - c. 280 BC Hipparchia of Maroneia W
c. 3rd-4th cen. BC Agnodike W med. Earliest known, perhaps apocryphal, childbearing care provider (midwife) among the ancient Greeks. Successfully invoked Athenian high court of appeals (Areios Pagos) to renounce the law that forbade women from the study and practice of midwifery and gynaecology. Solicited Athenian government to provide a stipend for female medical practice.
c. 2nd cen. BC Aglaonike of Thessalia (Aganice of Thessaly) W astr. Cited as the first female astronomer in ancient Greece; predicted the time and general area where a lunar eclipse would occur.[1][2]
c. 1st-3rd cen. Maria the Jewess W chem. Attributed with the invention of several chemical apparatus and is considered to be the first non-fictitious alchemist in the Western world.[3][4]
c. 105 Shi Dun E
350–370 - 415 Hypatia W astr. Head of the Platonist school at Alexandria. First notable female mathematician in the West. Taught philosophy, astronomy, and was last "librarian" at the Museum of Alexandria. Murdered by a Christian mob in 415 whose accusation was religious turmoil.[5]
c. 11th-12th cen. Trotula of Salerno W med. Author of Diseases of Women, Treatments of Women, and Women's Cosmetics, considered a major source of information about women's health in medieval Europe, reaching its greatest popularity in the 14th century.[6]
1099 - 1179 Bingen, Hildegard von W biol.
c. 1130 - 1195 Herrad of Landsberg W Author of a pictorial encyclopedia, Hortus deliciarum (Garden of Delight), a technological compendium of all sciences studied at the time, including theology.[7]
c. 12th cen. Lilavati S Daughter featured in Bhāskara II's treatise on mathematics. In the first volume of his main work Siddhānta Shiromani (Crown of treatises) alongside Bijaganita, Grahaganita and Golādhyāya, she is alluded to as a highly competent woman who solves various mathematical problems.[8]
c. 13th cen. Mercuriade W med. Physician, surgeon, and medical author whose works include Crisis, Pestilent Fever, and The Cure of the Wounds.[9]
1307 - 1326 Giliani, Alessandra W med. Anatomist and first female prosector (one who prepares dissections for anatomical study) in Italy. Giliani developed a method to drain blood from a corpse and replace it with a hardening colored dye, allowing the smallest blood vessels to be seen.[10]
fl. 1322 Almania, Jacqueline Felice de W med. Anatomist put on trial in Paris for unlawful practice though testimonies attested to her skill in curing patients and dexterity in surgery where other doctors had failed. Thereafter banned from medical practice and threatened with excommunication.[11]
c. 14th cen. Margarita W med.
c. mid 14th cen. Abella W med. Published two treatises, De atrabile (On Melancholia) and De natura seminis humani (On the Origin of Human Nature), in Italy. Lectured on standard medical practice, bile, and women's health and nature at the Schola Medica Salernitana (Salerno school of medicine).[12]
c. mid 14th cen. Guarna, Rebecca de W med. Physician, surgeon, author of Fevers, Urine, and Embryo treatises.[13]
1360 - 1436 Bucca (Bocchi), Dorotea W med. Chair of medicine and philosophy at the Alma Mater Studiorium (University of Bologna) from 1390 to 1430. [14]
fl. 1405 Calenda, Constance W med. Surgeon who specialized in diseases of the eye.[15]
c. 15th cen. Durisio, Calrice di W med. Physician and surgeon educated at the Hippocratica Civitas Studium Salerni (University of Salerno).[16]
1556 - 1643 Brahe, Sophia W astr.; biol.; chem. Astronomer, chemist, and horticulturalist; writer of a 900-page manuscript of genealogies of 60 Danish nobles. Assisted her brother, Tycho Brahe, in astronomical observation, a subject from whom she did not receive instruction but in lieu studied on her own (as related with pride by Tycho in private correspondence). [17]
NA Constanza W med.
NA Mattio, Thomasia de W med.
NA Incarnata, Maria W med.
NA Hebraea, Mary W chem.
NA Lasthenia W
NA Mahal, Nor S
NA Maritrayee S

See also

External pages

References

  1. Ogilvie, M. B. 1986. Women in Science. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-15031-X
  2. Schmitz, Leonhard and Smith, William (editor). 1867. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: Volume 1. Boston, p. 59. Contribution-url.
  3. "Mary the Jewess". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  4. Patai, Raphael 1995. The Jewish Alchemists. Princeton University Press, p. 60.
  5. "Hypatia". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  6. "Trotula of Salerno". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  7. "Herrad of Landsberg". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  8. "Lilavati". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  9. "Mercuriade". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  10. "Alessandra Giliani". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  11. "Jacqueline Felice de Almania". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  12. "Abella". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  13. "Rebecca de Guarna". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  14. "Dorotea Bocchi". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  15. "Constance Calenda". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  16. "Calrice di Durisio". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
  17. "Sophia Brahe". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retreived on February 27, 2012.
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