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Power Usage Chart

Item Watts
Water boiler (est.) 4500-5500
Dryer (laundry) (est.) 2000-5600
Oven (est. max) 2400
Dishwasher (est.) 1200-2400
Refrigerator (est. max) 700
Fireplace (elec.) (est.) 1500
Stove element (elec.) (est. max) 1500
Television monitor 312
Washer (laundry) (est.) 900
HD receiver  ?
Vacuum cleaner 1440
Bathroom lights (total) 112
Living room lights 61
Dining room light  ?
Desktop computer (est.) 120
Computer monitor (est.) 150
Printer (est. idle) 90
Furnace (heater)  ?
Hairdryer 1500
Toaster  ?
Microwave (est.) 750-1100
Blender  ?
Veggie blender  ?
Ceiling fan (est.) 65-175
Clothes iron  ?

Living room lights as reference

It costs one dollar per month to run both living room lights at five and half hours per day. How long would other items needs to be continuously operated to cost the equivalent of one month of lights? (Disregard the sloppy lack of consistent significant figures).

  • laundry dryer, 1.78 hrs (107 mins)
  • water boiler, 1.82 hrs (109 mins)
  • oven, dishwasher, 4.17 hrs (4 hrs 10 mins)
  • fireplace, hairdryer, 6.67 hrs (6 hrs 40 mins)
  • vacuum, 7 hrs
  • microwave, 9 hrs
  • washer, 11 hrs
  • television, 32 hrs
  • refrigerator, 50 hrs (@ 200 average watts / 14 hrs 17 mins @ 700 watts peak )
  • ceiling fan (low power), 138 hrs (6 days 9 hrs / high power 2 days 12 hrs)

Award count

History (GLPS 16-20, 22, 24†)

Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 18
Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 24
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 16‡
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 20
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 20‡
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 22
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 24
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd, GLPS 17
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd, GLPS 19
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd, GLPS 22‡

Summary in history

Gold medal icon.jpg 1st x 2
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd x 5
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd x 3

† = only one class competed at this camp
‡ = history topic; otherwise history of science

Arthur E. Michalak has participated in thirteen history competitions across seven camps. He has won at least one medal at each camp.

Speech (GLPS 15-18, 22)

Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 18
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd, GLPS 22

Pop Song (GLPS 15-18, 22)

Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 18
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 15
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 16

Notes. Excludes GLPS 14 (ecology teacher, no homeroom/speech/pop song); GLPS 15 (no history contest in level B/C); GLPS 19, and GLPS 20 (no homeroom/speech/pop song); GLPS 21 not at camp.
GLPS 15 history class achieved highest test scores in entire camp.

Activity & Experiment (GLPS 23-24)

Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 23 (class 14 team 2 Dimsum)
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 23 (class 14 team 1 Jamaica, unofficial not counted)

GLPS 24 ?

Summary Total all subjects, events

Gold medal icon.jpg 1st x 4
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd x 8
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd x 4

Alb Lee

History (GLPS 19-24†)

Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 19
Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 20
Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 20
Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 22
Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 23
Gold medal icon.jpg 1st, GLPS 23
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd, GLPS 19
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd, GLPS 22
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd, GLPS 24
Summary Total
Gold medal icon.jpg 1st x 6
Silver medal icon.jpg 2nd x 1
Bronze medal icon.jpg 3rd x 2

† = only one class competed at GLPS 24
Alb Lee has participated in eleven history competitions over six camps. He did not win any medal at two camps (GLPS 21, 24).

Collapsible elements

What makes you most proud about be a Minsago student? When have you seen Minsago at its best? What would it take to be at our best all the time?

This text is not collapsible; but the next is collapsible and hidden by default:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

This text is collapsible. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Methods of science

Physics is perhaps the most rational-based form of human curiosity. Ibn Al-Haytham constantly justifies hypotheses with experimental observation, describing the experiments in great details, so that it may be repeated, confirmed, rejected. Natural philosophers were some of the first people to work like this. his would summon science into existence, as a discipline in its own right. Natural philosophers used mathematics in startling new ways to reach out and describe the universe. There is no other strategy that explains how to find out how the universe works. It has delivered technologies that have transformed our lives. Methods take form that change everything. They revolutionize the way the world is observed. The idea that everything, from the celestial heavens, to human bodies, is not arbitrary, but subject to certain systematic rules, and whats more that humans can deduce the rules. They can be refined and tested through observation and experiment. These are the methods of science. (This paragraph should be cleaned up because it is taken from Jim Al-Khalili).

Unlike what laity think, scientific obversation occurs in a social context (i.e., that it does not happen in a laboratory far removed from the public). If people understood that, then they could be more confident that can grasp it and feel that ideas are legitimate. Science has unfortunately promulgated myths that are self-serving.


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Contributing and Editing

Categories • Files • Tables • Templates • Variables • Formulas • Quizzes • Style guide • Collections • Importing http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Help:Contents

See also

Using Wikibooks • Editing Wikitext • All help books

Enviable outcome

Research Methods

A novice student's paper is unoriginal, and is not distanced from sources. Instead, the sources become the paper. Novice students believe the books, never really quoting where the information comes. A transformed student's paper is original (withing the community of the classroom, not among the professionals), and is distanced from sources. She synoptically reads, looking for contradictions, weighs evidence, and quotes at each corner. The sources supplement, but do not become, the paper.

Scientific Literacy

Science courses often have very little impact on scientific literacy, though course evaluations may invariably demonstrate how much the student loved the course, valued the learning experience, and appreciated the teacher's enthusiastic efforts. According to piles of counter-evidence, caution is necessary at such a claim. Often the teacher in the course (and questionnaire) fails to provide the student with an adequate reference-frame from which to judge what has and has not been learned. The student may have enjoyed the course, but recalls little of what was supposed to be learned. The student shows little understanding of what science is; its process knowledge and its interactions with society. Arnold Arons (1997, p. 345) provides neither an exhaustive nor prescriptive list of abilities. Nevertheless, his insights characterize scientific literacy thus. An individual who has acquired some degree of scientific literacy will posses the ability to:

1 Be aware of very close analogies between certain modes of thought in natural sciences and in other disciplines such as history, economics, sociology, and political science; for example, forming concepts, testing hypotheses, discriminating between observation and inference (i.e., between information from a primary source and the interpretations placed on this information), constructing models, and doing hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
2 Recognize that scientific concepts (e.g., velocity, acceleration, force, energy, electrical charge, gravitational and intertial mass) are invented (or created) by acts of human imagination and intelligence and are not tangible objects or substances accidentally discovered, like a fossil, or a new plant or mineral.
3 Recognize that to be understood and correctly used, such terms require careful operational definition, rooted in shared experience and in simpler words previously defined; to comprehend, in other words, that a scientific concept involves an idea first and a name afterwards, and that understanding does not reside in the technical terms themselves.
4 Comprehend the distinction between observation and inference and discriminate between the two processes in any context under consideration.
5 Distinguish between the occasional role of accidental discovery in scientific investigation and the deliberate strategy of forming and testing hypotheses.
6 Understand the meaning of the word "theory" in the scientific domain, and have some sense, through specific examples, of how theories are formed, tested, validated, and accorded provisional acceptance; recognize in consequence, that the term does not refer to any and every personal opinion, unsubstantiated notion, or received article of faith and thus, for example, to see through the creationist locution that describes evolution as "merely theory."
7 Discriminate, on the one hand, between acceptance of asserted and unverified end results, models, or conclusions, and, on the other, understand their basis and origin; that is, to recognize when questions such as "How do we know...? Why do we believe...? What is the evidence for...?" have been addressed, answered, and understoo, and when something is being taken on faith.
8 Understand, again through specific examples, the sense in which scientific concepts and theories are mutable and provisional rather than final and unalterable, and to perceive the way in which such structures are continually refined and sharpened by processes of successive approximation.
9 Comprehend the limitations inherent in scientific inquiry and be aware of the kinds of questions that are neither asked nor answered; be aware of the endless regression of unanswered questions that resides behind the answered ones.
10 Develop enough basic knowledge in some area (or areas) of interest to allow intelligent reading and subsequent learning without instruction.
11 Be aware of at least a few specific instances in which scientific knowledge has had direct impact on intellectual history and on one's own view of the nature of the universe and of the human condition within it.
12 Be aware of at least a few specific instances of interaction between science and society on moral, ethical, and sociological planes.

Definition of Science

Albert Einstein

Science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday thinking.

J. G. Crowther

I have J.G. Crowther's definition of science in mind (Social Relations of Science) in mind:

A system of behavior by which people acquire mastery of their environment.

He prefaces in his book any "appreciation is practical, not theoretical." Looking through the notes, George Sarton originates science in any antiquated technique, art, and craft. He starts master of environment at 50,000 years ago. Another author, Farrington I think, does not define an era but does define history of science at 4,000 BC as the starting point of the record.

National Science Foundation

Compatible with Parker's definition of science in the Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (1994)

Science...is characterized by the possibility of making precise statements which are susceptible of some sort of check or proof. This often implies that the situations with which the special science is concerned can be made to recur in order to submit themselves to check, although this is by no means always the case. There are observational sciences such as astronomy or geology in which repetition of a situation at will is intrinsically impossible, and the possible precision is limited to precision of description. (p. 661)

According to Parker, technology is a a part of science, as described in the following:

Technology is a systematic knowledge and action, usually of industrial processes but applicable to any recurrent activity. Technology is closely related to science and to engineering. Science deals with humans' understanding of the real world about them--the inherent properties of space, matter, energy, and their interactions. Engineering is the application of objective knowledge to the creation of plans, designs, and means for achieving desired objectives. Technology deals with the tools and techniques for carrying out the plans. (p. 1876)

Sed et facilisis lorem.[1]

So we are left with the legacy of two types of thinking errors: Type 1 Error: believing a falsehood and Type 2 Error: rejecting a truth. ... Believers in UFOs, alien abductions, ESP, and psychic phenomena have committed a Type 1 Error in thinking: they are believing a falsehood. ... It's not that these folks are ignorant or uninformed; they are intelligent but misinformed. Their thinking has gone wrong.
— Michael Shermer, Why People Believe Weird Things, 1997, 2002, Introduction

Achieving Scientific Literacy

      Host nation (China) Nunc convallis elementum leo, ut lobortis lectus vulputate fringilla.[2]. Suspendisse et diam eget justo scelerisque dapibus. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Aliquam sodales, mauris vel faucibus vestibulum, leo quam laoreet orci, quis placerat est nisl sit amet turpis. Curabitur semper varius turpis, in sollicitudin mauris eleifend et. Etiam molestie dictum diam et blandit. Donec arcu dui, molestie a accumsan et, fermentum eu turpis. Integer est nibh, accumsan ut eleifend non, suscipit vitae tortor. Proin cursus imperdiet ipsum non commodo. Aenean quis odio eget est rutrum malesuada vel vitae massa.[3]

History of Physics?
To learn more about the types of scholarship applicants who have been successful, meet a few scholarship recipients from last year! Continue ...
Fusce et aliquet odio. Fusce tristique molestie arcu, non fringilla tortor porttitor vel. Sed et enim gravida diam mattis ultrices sed quis leo. Integer feugiat facilisis quam, non dignissim elit pellentesque et. Maecenas viverra iaculis leo, eu gravida arcu scelerisque non. Nam scelerisque commodo velit, et tincidunt felis pulvinar eu. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean gravida suscipit leo, eu ornare leo facilisis sed.[4]

Aliquam blandit nisl at odio sagittis et porta eros tincidunt.[2] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer quis lorem leo. Nam eget risus eget dui mollis tincidunt vitae vitae lacus. Donec a dignissim lectus. Nunc scelerisque odio quis lectus rhoncus ut volutpat odio bibendum. Curabitur porttitor sem sed nulla condimentum a ornare tellus ultrices. In condimentum justo aliquam sem interdum vulputate. Suspendisse porta facilisis augue, non imperdiet elit auctor ut. Nulla facilisi.[5]

Class 20 Classification Class 21 [h] Classification
Compet. Week Week
  1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Song         1      
Speech     3     2  
Presentation     1          
Debate (A)               D
Debate (B)       W        ?
Best PA                
Class 19 [H] Classification Class 20 Classification
Compet. Week Week
  1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Song 10              
Speech             2  
Presentation     3          
Debate (A)       W       W
Debate (B)               W
Best PA       3        
Fitness[7]       1        

Blackflag.png Abbasid Umayyadflag.png Umayyad Fatimidflag.png Fatimid Ayyubiddynasty.png Ayyubid Mamelukeflag.png Mameluke

Both described what the Empress looked like, what her voice sounded like, and her public manner. She was said to have had a soft face with strong features, a classic pretty but far from the sultry taste Gojong enjoyed.

I wish I could give the public a true picture of the queen as she appeared at her best, but this would be impossible, even had she permitted a photograph to be taken, for her charming play of expression while in conversation, the character and intellect which were then revealed, were only half seen when the face was in repose. She wore her hair like all Korean ladies, parted in the center, drawn tightly and very smoothly away from the face and knotted rather low at the back of the head. A small ornament...was worn on the top of the head fastened by a narrow black band. Her majesty seemed to care little for ornaments, and wore very few. No Korean women wear earrings, and the queen was no exception, nor have I ever seen her wear a necklace, a brooch, or a bracelet. She must have had many rings, but I never saw her wear more than one or two of European manufacture...

Brand Value Compared to GDP
Korea U.S.A Japan
GDP 8,800 131,329 43,641
National Brand Value 5,043 130,095 32,259
Unit: million dollars
Source: Hyundai Research Institute, 2006

English Lexicon

I claim there are five specializations other than natural philosophy, but I need to better get what was included in physics

Until the first half of the nineteenth century, science was simply a blanket expression for "knowledge", until William Whewell coined scientist in 1834. In the English lexicon from the 1300s to 1834, a scientist was categorically known as a natural philosopher (from natural philosophy) or less commonly, from 1587, as a naturalist (from natural history termed twenty years earlier) [because it was looked down upon to study nature by the church; develop this]. However, there is evidence of specialization appearing in the written record. Astronomy is already known for about a century. Contemporaneously to natural philosophy, come alchemy, astronomy, anatomy, and surgery. The practitioner takes more time. Around the same time natural philosopher is put into the English, alchemist, astrologer, and astronomer are added. A hundred years later surgeon is penned, much later anatomist (1542) and then chemist (1562). Within natural philosophy only the following subjects are earliest found in the English: astronomy (c. 1200s); alchemy, astrology, anatomy, and surgery (each c. 1300s). Though astronomy predates astrology by approximately a hundred years, the adjective astronomical is unknown until 1556, whereas astrological predates it by about 250 years. This perceived delay may be due in part to astronomical treatises generally not outdistancing astrological work until well into the Renaissance. Nevertheless, it does not explain why the term astronomy was introduced in the first place, if they were one-and-the-same. Chemist is first known in 1562, and it is interesting to note that that chemistry would take nearly a hundred years to find its way onto a page after chemist, theoretically formalized beyond its craft, in 1646. This, too, may likely be due to chemistry's then steady purview under alchemy. In most other cases the profession follows the formalized discipline, not the reverse. Physics would not be known apart from natural philosophy until 1715, geology not until 1735, and biology not until 1819. It would take an additional 125 years for the dictionary to recognize a physicist; the latter two subjects did not append –ist to the specialist until very recent times.


By far the oldest terms: astrolabe, azimuth (each, c. 1300s); nadir (c. 1400s)


Unlike other crafts, physics did not begin to specialize as it did “incorporate” other areas into its sphere of influence such as metaphysics (1569) and optics (1579). Then the natural philosopher interested in physical knowledge also focused on the heavens, borrowing heavily from astrology and astronomy. This generality begins to change. In 1612 mechanics appears, then electricity (1616), magnetism thirty-years next, and projectiles ten-years after that, the predecessor to kinematics. Concepts at hand, before the 1600s, are weight, heat and energy (all penned before the 1100s); force and pressure (each c. 1300s); velocity (c. 1400s); gravity (1505); acceleration (1531); and temperature (1533). Momentum is unknown in the literature until 1610.


Magma (c. 1400s); strata (1599); fossil (1604); quaternary (1605); epoch (1614); volcano (1633); aeon (1642); igneous (1664); Pangaea (?); moraine (1789); metamorphic (1816); loess (1834); cenozoic (1841); bedrock (1850); tectonic (1894); holocene (1897)


Cell (1933); tissue (borrowed); molecule (1794); nucleus (1704); mitochondrion (1901); phylum (1876); genus (1551); photosynthesis (1898); autotroph (1938)

The term 'gifted and talented' when used in respect to students, children, or youth means [those who show] evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities.

P.L. 103–382, Title XIV, p. 388

Year Rank (Change)
2005 30 (increase 3)
2006 33 (increase 3)
2007 29 (decrease 4)
2008 116 (increase 7)
2009 126 (decrease 10)

Extant formal specialization within natural philosophy in English usage before 1600

Astronomy, medicine (both, c. 1200s); alchemy, astrology, anatomy, surgery (each, c. 1300s); agriculture (c. 1400s); optics (1579).

Non-scientific subjects

philosophy and geometry (both, c. 1300s); geography and arithmetic (both, c. 1400s); mathematics (1573)

Medieval Manuscripts

Herbalism [M]=medical information

De Virtutibus Herbarum, Matthaeus Platearius
De Plantis, Aristotle, trans. Alfred of Sareshel
De Viribus Herbarum, Macer Aemilius, c. 900
Herbarium Apuleius, c. 400 [M]
Historia De Plantis, Theophrastos, c. 300 BC
Liber de Proprietatibus Rerum, Bartholomaeus Anglicus, c. 1200 [M]
Natural History, Pliny the Elder [M]


Cause et Curae, Hildegard von Bingen, c. 1150
Canon, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), c. 1000
De Materia Medica, Doiscorides Pedanios, c. 100
De Practica Chirurgaea, Med. School of Salerno
Regimen Sanitatis Salerni, Med School of Salerno
Experiments of Cophon, Med School of Salerno, 1080
Leechbook of the Bald, 925
Theatrum Sanitatis, Abul Asan al-Muchtar ibn-Boltan
Anatomy, Galenos
Kitab Qiwa al-'Aqaqir (The Book of the Powers of Remedies), Masarjawah, 683


Almagest (Mathēmatikē Syntaxis), Klaudios Ptolemaios (Claudius Ptolemy) (Astronomy) c. 200
Tabulae, Al-Khwarizmi, trans. Adelard of Bath (Astronomy)
Greater Introduction, Abu Ma'shar 787, trans. 1133 (Astrology)
Tetrabiblios, Ptolemy trans. 1138 (Astrology)


In Pursuit of Gold, Artephius, 12th c.
Turba Philosophorum, 12th C. (trans. from Arabic to Latin)
The Discovery of Secrets, Geber (Abu Musa Djabir ibn Hayan El Azdir El Kufi)
De Compositione Alchemiae, Robert of Chester
The Book of Stones, Bishop Marbode of Rennes (Properties of Gems), late 11th C.
De Anima, Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
Kitab al-Asrar (The Book of Secrets), al-Razi, late 9th c.
Geber Summa Perfectionis magisterii, Liber Fornacum, De Investigatione perfectionis, De inventione veritatis.


Nuzhat al-Mushtag fi Ikhtiraq al-Afaq (The Delight of One who Wishes to Traverse the Regions of the World) or Roger's Book, Al-Idrisi
Navigato Brendani (Atlantic)
Itinerarium Regis Ricardi, de Vinsaulf (Holy Land)
De Locis Sanctis, Abbott Andamnan of Iona, c. 690 (to King of Northumbria, abridged by Bede)


Commentaries of Aristotle, Averroes, mid 11th c.
De Bestis (Illum. Irish Monks)
Treatise on Cypher, Al-Khwarizmi c. 780, trans. Carthage 1200 (Mathematics)
De Aspectibus, Alhazen c. 1000
De Oculis, Isa ibn-Ali
Liber de Principis Instructione, Gerald of Wales, 1193

External Links


User-created content (UCC)

Minutephysics on Google Video

Speed of light in glass
Tides, The
There is no pink light
What is fire?


Shock and Awe: The Story of Electricity [1/3 - Spark (2011)]
The Cell - Chemistry of Life
God of the Gaps - The Story of God - BBC
Islam and Science
Light Fantastic
Atom: Clash of the Titans
Comet Newton
Dangerous Knowledge
The Secret Life of Chaos
Atom: Illusion of Reality
High Anxieties Chaos Mathematics

Playing with maps

Test page is located in South Africa
Cape Town
Test page (South Africa)


  1. Story, Ronald (1975). "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865". Journal of Social History 8 (3): 94–121. doi:10.1353/jsh/8.3.94. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 details of the citation
  3. LibreOffice For Starters, First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18
  4. Schwager, Sally (2004). "Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe". In Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (ed.). Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 1403960984. 
  5. Columbia prof discusses Islamic science. Dailyprincetonian.com (2006-01-16). Retrieved on 2012-02-01.
  6. Team-event jump-rope competition
  7. Team-event jump-rope competition
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