Middle Eastern Natural Philosophers

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Below are lists of Middle Eastern natural philosophers of the Arabic sphere of influence and Islamic Spain (al-Andalus) in antiquity. In some cases the antiquity is unclear. As there was little formality among subjects until recent times, the categories below are adjectival. And because many Middle Eastern natural philosophers were polymaths, some listings are in multiple categories. All years are anno domini (AD) unless otherwise noted; date preceded by b. is born, c. is approximate, fl. is flourished, and d. is died. Luminary name rendered in Latin or English or both is shown in parentheses. Naming articles are thus: Al - the; ibn, bin, banu - son of; abu - father of, the one with. Please consult the chronology page for temporal or alphabetical arrangements. Please consult the *Middle Eastern chronology of natural philosophers for time-sorted biographical input.



Biological / Botanical / Zoological

Chemical / Alchemical

Geological / Geographical

Medical / Physiological / Anatomical

Physical / Mechanical

See also

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