Middle Eastern Natural Philosopher Chronology

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Click the Period or Name banisters to sort dates and names into ascending or descending order. Warning to Google Chrome user: Unfortunately a bug in the browser disables the sorting banister. All years are anno domini (AD) unless otherwise noted; date that includes c. is approximate, fl. is flourished, and d. is died. Luminary name rendered in Latin or English or both is shown in parentheses. As many natural philosophers were polymaths, the subject column may have multiple listings. Naming articles are thus: Al - the; ibn, bin, banu - son of; abu - father of, the one with. Subject abbreviation: astronomical = astr.; biological, botanical and zoological = biol.; chemical and alchemical = chem.; geological and geographical = geo.; medical, physiological, and anatomical = med.; physical or mechanical = phys..


Time Period (Color Chart)

      601 - 800 (rosy brown)       801 - 1000 (wheat)       1001 - 1200 (almond)       1201 - 1400 (cornsilk)       1401 - 1600 (white)


Period Name Subject(s) For which noted
9e99 ~z
c. 950s ~ 1000 Abenragel, Haly astr.
1100 - 1150 Aflah, Jabir ibn astr. Book Islah al-Majisti (Correction of the Almagest) was the first criticism of Klaudios Ptolemaios' (Ptolemy) work in the Islamic West (Andalusia resident). In addition, is credited with inventing the torquetum in the 12th century, an astronomical instrument used to take and convert three sets of measurements in the horizontal, equatorial, and ecliptic. As summarized in Pedersen, ibn Aflah considerably influenced medieval astronomy and trigonometry through his great critical paraphrase of the Almagest, transl. by Gerardo da Cremona (Gerardus Cremonensis) as De astronomica libri IX (printed as an appendix to Petrus Apianus, Instrumentum primi mobilis, Nuremberg, 1534). His trigonometry is more advanced than Ptolemy's (proof of the spherical relation cosA = cosa sinb). In astronomy he was a fierce critic of Ptolemy on many points of detail, although he retains the main features of his astronomy.[1]:p. 354
1095 - 1138 Bajjah, Ibn (Avempace) astr.; med.; phys.
787 - 886 Balkhi, Abu Ma'shar al- (Albumasar) astr. Persian scholar who flourished in Baghdad where he became famous as an astrologer. His prolific writings draw upon Persian, Indian, Syriac, and Greek sources. In Latin Europe he became of the principal sources of astrology with his Introductorium in astronomiam, translated by John of Spain in 1133 and again by Herman of Carinthia, in 1140 (first printed in 1489 in Augsburg; no modern edition). The work contains a complete exposition of astrology, including a theory of the tides. Equally popular was his plagiarism from al-Kindi, De magnis coniunctionibus et annorum revolutionibus in John of Spain's translation (Augsburg, 1489). An important collection of tables and other materials called the Book of the thousands is lost.[1]:p. 298
858 - 929 Battani, Al- (Albategnius) astr. For the major part of his life worked at al-Raqqa on the Euphrates. His chief astronomical work is his zij or collection of astronomical tables with canons for their use, and is one of the very few works of its kind published in a modern, critical edition (Nallino, Albatenii Opus Astronomicum (Arabic text with Latin translation), 3 vols). In the Latin Middle Ages it was known as De scientia stellarum, from a (now lost) translation by Robert of Chester and another by Plato of Tivoli (printed Nuremberg, 1537). The theory behind this zij is mainly Ptolemaic, but a number of Ptolemy's numerical parameters were improved from new observations. Discarding Thabit's theory of trepidation, al-Battani accepted his actual rate of precession (1° in 66 years).[1]:pp. 315-316
c. 740 - 815 Athari, Mashallah ibn (Messahala) astr. Astrologer and astronomer of Persian-Jewish origin, ibn Athari was an astrologer at the court of al-Mansu in Baghdad and involved as an active surveyor in its foundation. He wrote an astronomical work, De scientia motus orbis, extant in a Latin translation by Gerardo da Cremona (Gerardus Cremonensis) (printed Nuremberg, 1504), and has traditionally, but wrongly, been credited with a treatise on the astrolabe which, in a Latin version by John of Spain (ed. with a facsimile by R. T Gunther, Early Science in Oxford, V, Oxford, 1929, 137-192) spread over all Latin Europe as the standard work on the subject. A collection of his horoscopes has been established by E. S. Kennedy and D. Pingree, The astrological history of Masha'allah, Cambridge, Mass, 1971.[1]:p. 368
1100s ~ 1200s Bitruji, Nur ad-Din al- (Al-Bitruji or Alpetragius) astr.
940 - 998 Buzjani, Abu al-Wafa astr. Astronomer and mathematician, Buzjani worked in Baghdad. In mathematics he occupied himself with constructions with a fixed compass-span, with spherical triangles, and particularly with trigonometry, in which he introduced the theorem of tangents to spherical right triangles. In astronomy he wrote an Almagest, after the manner of Klaudios Ptolemaios (Ptolemy), sometimes believed to contain the first mention of the inequality of the moon. This misinterpretation was corrected by the Vaux.[1]:p. 298
828 - 896 Dīnawarī, Abū Hanīfa astr.; biol.; geo.
c. 872 - c. 951 Farabi, Al- (Alpharabius or Abunaser) astr.; biol.; med.
c. 830 - c. 870 Farghani, Al- (Alfraganus) astr. A well-regarded astronomer during the time of al-Ma'mun, in 861 organized the Nilometer at Fustat. Al-Farghani wrote two unpublished treatises about the astrolabe. Under the name Alfraganus he was known in the Latin Middle Ages as the author of a widely read book, Compilation Astronomica, also called Liber 30 differentiarum, transl. Gerardo da Cremona (Gerardus Cremonensis) and Johannes Hispalensis (Ferrara, 1493, later printed by Melanchthon, Nuremberg, 1537; new Latin transl. by J. Golius, 169, repr. Frankfurt a. M., 1986) which in the thirteenth century was translated into Hebrew by Jacob Anatoli. He also wrote about the construction of sundials.[1]:p. 336
d. 777 Fazari, Ibrahim al- astr.
d. 796/806 Fazari, Muhammad al- astr.
fl. 9th century Gorgani, Abu Said astr.
fl. 10th century Harawi, Abolfadi astr.
1136 - 1206 Jazari, Al- astr.; phys.
c. 1380 - 1429 Kashi, Jamshid al- astr. Astronomer and mathematician who first worked in the city of Kashan but later first directed the new Ulug Beg observatory in Samarkand. Particularly known for his equatorium (E. S. Kennedy, The planetary equatorium of Jamshid Ghiyath al-Din Al-Kashi, Princeton, 1960, text in facsimile with English translation and commentary). A mathematical work contains valuable contributions to the theory of root extraction (Abdul-Kader Dakhel, Al-Kashi on root extraction, Beirut, 1960, text with English transl. and commen.). A large zij is extant in MS.[1]:pp. 361-362
1320 - 1380 Khalili, Al- astr.
1048 - 1141 Khayyami, Umar Al- (Omar Khayyam) astr.; phys.
900 - 971 Khazin, Abu Jafar al- astr.
940 - 1000 Khujandi, Abu-Mahmud al- astr.
c. 780 - c. 850 Khwarizmi, Al- astr.; chem. Mathematician and astronomer who worked in Baghdad and presumably took part in the measurements of a degree of the meridian under al-Ma'mun. Using Hindi numerals he wrote an arithmetical treatise known as the Algorismus (ed. K. Vogel, Aalan, 1963) - the title is a perverted form of his name - and an Algebra translated into Latin by Robert of Chester (Latin text and English transl. L. C. Karpinsky, New York, 1915). In the field of astronomy he wrote on the astrolabe and compiled a large collection of tables, or zij, which is extant in Adelard of Bath's Latin translation of a later Arabic version by Ibn al-Muthanna (ed. H. Suter, Die astron. Tafeln des...al-Khwarizmi, Cophenhagen, 1914; English transl. O. Neugebauer, The astronomical tables of al-Khwarizmi, Copenhagen, 1962). It is important as a testimony to the non-Ptolemaic, Indian methods used in early Islamic astronomy.[1]:p. 362
971 - 1029 Labban, Kushyar ibn astr.
c. 910 - 1005 Ma, Yize astr.
820 - 880 Mahani, Al- astr.
1126 - 1189 Mahmud, Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn (Anvari) astr.
d. 1008 Majriti, Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al- astr.; chem. Resident of Madrid, was one of the earliest known Moorish scientists. He is particularly known for his Arabic version of al-Khwarizmi's astronomical tables, in which he changed the chronology from the Persian to the Arabic calendar, and the standard meridian from Arim to Qurtubah (Eng: Cordoba), where he worked. This version was translated into Latin by Adelard of Bath, and was commented upon by Ibn al-Muthanna. Also a treatise on the astrolabe, and various alchemical writings, are ascribed to him.[1]:p. 367
c. 960 - 1036 Mansur, Abu Nasr astr.
c. 1256 - c. 1321 Marrakushi, Ibn al-Banna' al- astr.
d., c. 869 Marwazi, Al- astr.
fl. mid 8th cen. Nahavandi, Ahmad astr.
865 - 922 Nayrizi, Al- (Anaritius, Nazirius) astr.
fl. 10th century Quhi, Abu Sahl al- (Kuhi) astr.; phys.
826 - 901 Qurra, Thabit ibn astr.; phys. Mathematician and astronomer who lived for the most part in Baghdad, ibn Qurra was an industrious translator of Greek and Syriac texts into Arabic, and the author of a long series of works of mathematical, astronomical or medical content (ed. F. J. Carmody, The Astronomical Works of Thabit B. Qurra, Berkeley, 1960 (Latin texts), and R. Morelon: Thabit Ibn Qurra, Oeuvres d'astronomie, Paris, 1987 (Arab texts and transl.)). In the field of astronomy he was responsible for the introduction of the later widespread idea of the trepidatio or oscillatory motion of the equinoctial points, which made precession a complicated function of time. In statics his writing on the balance Liber Karastonis (Latin text with English transl. in E. A. Moody and M. Clagett, The Mediaeval Science of Weights, Madison, Wisc., 1952, 87-117) came to play an important role.[1]:p. 394
c. 988 - c. 1061 Ridwan, Ali ibn astr.; geo.
1126 - 1198 Rushd, Ibn (Averroës) astr.; biol.; geo. Regarded as the most Aristotelian of all Muslim commentators on Aristoteles. Ibn Rushd departs from the traditional Arabian attempt to interpret Aristoteles in terms of neo-Platonism and through his triple set of commentaries (a brief, a medium, and an advanced one) exerted great influence upon the Aristotelianism of the thirteenth century. He was known simply as the 'Commentator.' His Latin followers, or 'Averroists', were the most outspoken Aristotelians of the later Middle Ages. In astronomy most of them advocated the 'physical' planetary system, rather than that of Klaudios Ptolemaios (Ptolemy).[1]:p. 351
d. 990 Saghani, Al- astr.;phys.
c. 1250 - c. 1310 Samarqandi, Shams al-Din al- astr.
1304 - 1375 Shatir, Ibn Al- astr. Resident of Dimashq (Damascus), worked out a planetary theory that in many ways foreshadowed that of Copernicus, as it discarded Ptolemy's equant circles. Al-Shatir's lunar theory is identical to that of Copernicus. One cannot, however, infer any direct influence, as his treatise was never translated into Latin; and Ibn al-Shatir does not follow Copernicus in transferring the center of the universe to the sun.[1]:pp. 350-351
903 - 986 Sufi, Abd al-Rahman al- (al-Sufi or Alzophi) astr.
c. 1105 - 1185 Tufail, Ibn (Abubacer) astr.; biol.; med.
1201 - 1274 Tusi, Nasir al-Din al- astr.; biol.; chem.; med.; phys. Polymath scholar from Tus in Khorosan who served the new Mongol rulers both before and after the sacking of Baghdad in 1258, when the caliphate was disbanded. In 1259 al-Tusi directed the new observatory at Maragha in what is in the northwest of today's Iran, where a group of astronomers wrote the famous zij published in his name. He published an important manual on trigonometry considered as distinct from spherical astronomy (French transl. Carathéodory Traité du quadrilatière, Constantinople, 1891), and several astronomical works, as well as a multitude of writings on scientific and philosophical subjects. In planetary theory he made use of a kinematic device for producing rectilinear motion by means of a circle rolling inside another circle with twice the diameter.[1]:p. 370
d. 1213 Tusi, Sharaf al-Din al- astr.
1394 - 1449 Ulugh, Beg astr. A grandson of Tamerlane, Ulugh Beg was governor of Turkestan until he became emperor of the Mongol empire in 1447. Two years later he was murdered by his son. In 1420 he founded an astronomical observatory near Samarkand, which for awhile became the astronomical center of the known world and was one of the last great achievements of Islamic science. From the observations made there a new collection of tables was prepared and a star catalogue (ed. E. B. Knobel, Ulugh Beg's Catalogue of Stars, Washington, 1917) which soon spread in Arabic versions.[1]:pp. 398-399
d. 1266 Urdi, Mo'ayyeduddin astr.
c. 950 - 1009 Yunus, Ibn astr.; phys. Lived mostly in Cairo, where he compiled the important Hakemite Tables (Arabian text with French transl. M. Caussin, Notices et extraits, VII (an XII = 1804), 16-240) containing observations of eclipses and conjunctions, important astronomical constants, and an account of the geodetic measurements of al-Ma'mun. In addition, he contributed considerably to the development of trigonometry.[1]:p. 353
1028 - c. 1087 Zarqali, Al- (Arzachel) astr. Native of al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), al-Zarqali was an astronomer. His surname means "the Engraver", and he is remembered as the inventor of a new kind of instrument (derived from the astrolabe) called the safika (saphea, assafea) which he described in a particular treatise (Tractat de l'assafea, ed. and transl. J. M. Millas y Vallicrosa, Barcelona, 1933; cfr. Libros del saber 3, Madrid, 1864). In the Latin Middle Ages he was famous because the (lost) Arabic original of the Toledo Tables and their Canones were ascribed to him; they were translated into Latin by Gerardo da Cremona (Gerardus Cremonensis).[1]:p. 403
850 - 934 Balkhi, Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl biol.
647 - 680 Ali, Al-Abbas ibn biol.
c. 740 - 828 Asmai, Al- biol.
c. fl. 950s Bassal, Allah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn biol.
973 - 1048 Biruni, Abu Rayhan al- biol.; chem.; geo.; med.; phys. For religious reasons nourished anti-Arabian feelings, lived mostly in India, and probably died in what is today Afghanistan. A great promoter of contracts between the East and West, his India (translated by C. E. Sachau, London, 1910) is a mine of information on Indian science and civilization in the Middle Ages. Among his numerous writings is The chronology of ancient nations (transl. C. E. Sachau, London, 1879) and he has also left a number of important works on astronomy, such as Instruction in the elements of the art of astrology (ed. and transl. R. R. Wright, London, 1934), The determination of the co-ordinates of cities (transl. J. Ali, Beirut, 1966), and On transits (transl. Mohammed Saffouri and Adham Ifram, Beirut, 1959). His greatest astronomical collection Qanun al-Mas'udi (Hyderabad, 1954 ff.) deals with all the main problems of astronomy. In particular, he is remembered for his contributions to trigonometry, his new method of measuring the size of the earth, and his inconclusive discussion of its daily rotation. His Exhaustive treatise on shadows 1-2 is translated by E. S. Kennedy, Aleppo, 1976. In geology he explained artesian wells by the law of communicating vessels, and the Indus Basin as an ancient sea filled up with alluvial soil. He also measured specific weights of 18 gems and metals.[1]:pp. 317-318
965 - 1040 Haytham, Ibn al- (Alhazen) biol.; med.; phys. Conducted most notable work in Egypt under al-Hakim (996-1020). Most important achievements deal with spherical mirrors, the refraction of light, which is examined experimentally, and other optical subjects. His Optics (ed. Baarmann, Abhandlung uber das Licht von Ibn al-Haitham, Arabic text with German transl. Zts. Deuts. Morgenl. Ges., XXXVI (1882), 195-237; older Latin transl. ed. Risner, Alhazeni Opticae Thesaurus, Basel, 1572, together with Vitelo's Optics, reprinted New York, 1972) forms a starting point for Vitelo and was still of importance in the sixteenth century. As an astronomer, Alhazen was very critical of Aristoteles, stressing the necessity for a 'physical' astronomy of material spheres.[1]:pp. 349-350
776 - 869 Jahiz, Al- biol.; med.
c. 801 - 873 Kindi, Ibn Ishaq al- (Al-Kindi or Alkindus) biol.; chem.; geo.; med.; phys. Only known Islamic philosopher of Arabic (Bedouin) extract, Al-Kindi had a deep knowledge of Greek science and philosophy, translated Greek works into Arabic, and wrote on many subjects in philosophy (A. Nagy, Die philos. Abhandlungen des al-Kindi, Münster, 1897), an Epistle on the Concentric Structure of the Universe (transl. H. Khatchadourian and N. Rescher, Isis, LVI, (1965) 190), a Buch über...die Diestillation (Arabic text and German transl. K. Garbers, Leipzig, 1948), on the tides (German transl. E Wiedemann, Annalen der Physick, LXVII (1923), 374), on optics, medicine, music, etc. Only a few of his many treatises are extant. In the Latin Middle Ages he was an influential author, due to a number of translations by Gerardo da Cremona (Gerardus Cremonensis).[1]:p. 363
d. 994 Majusi, Ali ibn al-Abbas al (Masoudi or Haly Abbas) biol.; med.
994 - 1074 Hazm, Ibn phys.
c. 980 - 1037 Sina, Ibn (Avicenna) biol.; geo.; med.; phys. In the late Middle Ages known as Avicenna, was also well regarded as a medical author as Aelius Galenus (Galen). His large encyclopedia Qanun (Canon) was translated by Gerardo da Cremona (Gerardus Cremonensis), and during the fifteenth century was frequently reprinted. In the East new editions still appear today. (Eng. transl. by M. S. Khan, Karachi, 1966.) His great composite philosophical work Kitab al-shifa (German transl. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, Halle, 1907-1909) contains many original scientific views. He advanced a corpuscular theory of light, thus postulating a finite speed for light. He also investigated specific gravity but differs from all contemporary alchemists in denying the possibility of transmutation of metals. His treatise on minerals is the main source for medieval mineralogy and geology.[1]:p. 352
654 - 728 Sirin, Ibn biol.
c. 838 - 0870 Tabari, Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al- biol.; med. Produced one of the first encyclopedia of medicine. Pioneer in the fields of pediatrics and child development. Tutor to Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (Rhazes).
936 - 1013 Zahrawi, Abu al-Qasim al- (Albucasis) biol.; med. Author of Kitab al-Tasrif (Method of Medicine or "An Aid to Him that Lacks the Capacity to Read Big Books") in 1000, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. Revived Hippocratic spirit of ethics towards patients. Pioneering contributor to surgical procedures and 200 instruments still contemporaneously applicable. Interested in successful delivery of babies (obstetrics), described today's "Walcher's position", "Kocher's technique. One of the first to describe ectopic pregnancy in 963 and identify the hereditary nature of hemophilia. Wrote treatises about bones and joints. Invented forceps for extracting a deceased fetus. Described techniques to re-implant teeth and artificial denture production out of the bones of animals. Perfected techniques to diagnose illnesses for bladder, kidney, and gallstones. One of the first to successfully operate o the bowels. Innovated use of silk and catgut to stitch wounds shut. Developed special technique to drill into the skull without damaging the brain. Demonstrated techniques to heal spinal fractures. Showed unusual concern for illnesses of women. Created instruments to extract teeth and hook to remove nasal polyps, syringes to perform enemas, and various knives and saws. Instructed on the preparation of drugs by describing recipes for laxatives and cardiac drugs. His treatise is one of the first to advocate general medical knowledge prior to field specification in the training of doctors. Royal physician to al-Hakam II (914-976) starting in 961. Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368), in his Chirurgia Magna (Great Surgery) quotes al-Zahrawi over 200 times. Al-Tasrif becomes standard medical text in 1471. Jacques Dalechamps (1513-1588) quotes Al-Tasrif.
1091 - 1161 Zuhr, Abu Marwan ibn (Avenzoar or Abumeron) biol.; med.
810 - 887 Firnas, Abbas Ibn (Armen Firman) chem.; med.; phys.
c. 721 - c. 815 Hayyan, Jabir ibn (Geber) chem.; astr.; geo.; med.; phys. Latinized as Geber, ibn Hayyan was an alchemist who lived in Kufa. Much material is, more or less correctly, attributed to him. Most of these works are unpublished and the majority of the Latin treatises circulating during the Middle Ages as 'Geber's Works' (E. J. Holmyard, The Works of Geber, Anglicized by Richard Russell (1678), London, 1928) are inauthentic, although they are very important to the historian of medieval chemistry. A book on poisons is translated into German (Jabir, Das Buch der Gifte, übers. A Siggel, Wiesbaden, 1958).[1]:pp. 354-355
1332 - 1406 Khaldun, Ibn chem. Conducted work in chemistry but mostly known as one of the first forerunners of historiography, economics, and sociology. Authored Muqaddimah (Greek: Prolegomena) in 1377.
865 - 925 Razi, Muhammad ibn Zakariya (Al-Razi or Rhazes) chem.; med.
702 - 765 Sadiq, Jafar al- chem.; med.; phys.
d. 704 Yazid, Khalid ibn (Khalid or Calid) chem.; med.
1162 - 1231 Baghdadi, Abd al-Latif al- geo.
1304 - 1369 Battuta, Ibn geo.
c. 900s Fadlan, Ahmad ibn geo.
c. 895 - c. 0979 Jazzar, Ibn Al- geo.; med.
1099 - 1165/1166 Idrisi, Muhammad al- (Dreses) geo.
1145 - 1217 Jubayr, Ibn geo.
d. 999 Masihi, Al- (Avicenna's Teacher) geo.
c. 896 - c. 956 Masudi, Al- geo.
1213 - 1288 Nafis, Ibn al- geo.; med.
1191 - 1248 Baitar, Ibn al- med.
850 - 934 Balkhi, Ahmed ibn Sahl al- med.
1265 - 1318 Farisi, Kamal al-Din al- med.; phys.
c. 900s Gazzar, Abu Gaafar Amed ibn Ibrahim ibn abi Halid al- med.
c. 1122 - 1213 Hubal, Ibn med.
809 - 873 Ishaq, Hunayn ibn (Johannitius) med.
d. 1100 Jazla, Ibn med.
c. fl. 1010 Kahhal, Ali ibn Isa al- (Jesu Occulist) med.
1313 - 1374 Khatib, Ibn al- med.
932 - 1030 Miskzawayh, Ibn (Ebn Meskavayh) biol.; med. One of the first to clearly describe the idea of evolution in al-Fawz al-Asghar. By the 19th century his manuscripts were available in European universities, and the work is believed to have been studied by Charles Darwin, a student of Arabic.
1233 - 1305 Quff, Ibn al- med.
d. c. 869 Sahl, Shapur ibn med. Wrote one of the first medical books in the ninth century on "antidotes" called Aqrabadhin, divided into 22 volumes and possibly one of the earliest of its kind to influence Islamic medicine. Antidotary enjoyed much popularity until it was superseded Ibn al-Tilmidh's version later in the first half of twelfth century.
N/A Samghun, Abu Bakr Ibn of Cardoba med.
c. fl. 900s Tabari, Abul Hasan al- med.
d. 1033 Thahabi, Ibn Al- med.
c. 1080 - 1165 Baghdadi, Abu'l-Barakāt al- phys.
803 ~ 873 Banu Musa brothers phys.
c. 953 - c. 1029 Karaji, Al- phys.
c. 1050s ~ c. 1100s Khazini, Abu al-Fath (Al-Khazini) phys.
940 - 1000 Sahl, Ibn phys.
1236 - 1311 Shirazi, Qutb al-Din al- astr.; phys. Pupil of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, who traveled extensively in the Near and Middle East and died in Tabriz. Al-Shirazi wrote on geometry, optics (correct explanations of the rainbow), mechanics, medicine, philosophy, and theology, but his main work was in astronomy, where he worked out a geometrical model for planetary longitudes involving a minimum of rotating vectors. The work has been investigated by Kennedy, but the actual treatises dating from 1281 and 1284 remain unpublished.[1]:pp. 385-386
1073 - 1165 Tilmidh, Ibn al- med.
820 - 912 Luqa, Qusta ibn med.
1220 - 1283 Maghribi, Muhyi al-Din al- astr.
b. 1421 Majid, Ahmad ibn geo. Majid was an expert cartographer and navigator who authored Kitab al-Fawa'id fi Usul 'Ilm al-Bahr wa 'l-Qawa'id (Book of Useful Information on the Principles and Rules of Navigation), as well as books on marine science, the movements of ships, and seafaring manuals. Historical accounts indicate that Majid aided famed explorer Vasco da Gama to find his way from Africa to India on his first all water trade route between Europe and India, by using an Arab map then unknown to European sailors.
c. 650s - c. 700s Himyari, Harbi al- chem.
d. 892 Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya al- chem.
c. 789 - 857 Ziryab (Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi') chem.
c. 850s ~ 900s Wahshiyya, Ibn chem. One of the first historians to be able to at least partly decipher what was written in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.
c. 900 - c. 960 Tamimi, Muhammed ibn Umail al- (Zadith Senior or Hamuelis) chem.
fl. 900s Muwaffaq, Abu Mansur chem.
c. 997 - c. 1074 Wafid, Ibn al- (Abenguefit) chem.
fl. 1034 Khati, Al-Khwarizmi al- chem.
1029 - 1070 Andalusi, Said al- astr.
1008 - 1062 Badis, Al-Muizz ibn chem.
fl. 1000s Din, Ahmad ibn Imad chem.
b., c. 1126 Hafiz, Ibn al- (Arthephius, Artefius, Artefii) chem.
1061 - 1121 Tughrai, Al- chem.
d. 1126 Nabarawi, Al- chem.
d. 1197 Ra'a, Abul Hasan ibn Musa ibn Arfa chem.
d. c. 1068 Salt, Abu al- chem.
d. 1276 Kātibī, Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al- chem.
1263 - 1328 Kātibī, Taymiyyah, Ibn astr.
1145-1146 - c. 1221 Attar of Nishapur (Farīd ud-Dīn or Attar) chem.
d. 1260 Simawi, Al- chem.
fl. 1300s Rassam, Ibn chem.
d. 1342 Jaldaki, Al- chem.
d. 1361 Tammam, Abul Ashba ibn chem.
d. 1068 Za'faran, Ephraim ibn al- med.
fl. 11th century Bukhtishu, Abdollah ibn med.
951 - 1029 Kattani, Ibn al- (al-Mutatabbib) med.
d. 1088 or 1066 Butlan, Ibn med.
fl. 11th century Ilaqi, Yusuf al- med.
1101 - 1184 Mudawwar, Abu al-Bayan ibn al- (ibn al-Mudawwar) med.
fl. 12th century Farrukh, Ahmad ibn (Ahmad-i Farrokh) med.
1041 - 1136 Gorgani, Ismail (Sayyid Zayn al-Din Isma'il al-Husayni al-Jurjani or Jurjani) med.
1135 - 1204 Maimon, Moses ben- (Maimonides, Mūsā ibn Maymūn, or Rambam) med.
d. 1208 Israili, Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al- med.
d. 1180 Turjali, Abu Jafar ibn Harun al- med.
d. 1174 Hakam, Abu al-Majd ibn Abi al- med.
c. 1130 - c. 1180 Maghribī, Samau'al al- med.
c. 1240 - 1291 Dawla, Sa'ad al- med.
d. 1165 Ghafiqi, Muhammad ibn Aslam Al- med.
fl. 683 Māsarjawaih med.
d. 670 Harith, Nafi ibn al- med.
b. 7th century Tamimi, Ibn Abi Ramtha al- med.
fl. 7th century Aslamia, Rufaida Al- med.
fl. 9th century Khasib, Abu Bakr al-Hassan ibn al- (al-Khaseb or Albubather) med.
fl. 9th century Sarafyun, Yahya ibn (Johannes Serapion or Serapion the Elder) med.
b. 777 Masawaih, Yuhanna ibn (Masawaiyh or Mesue the Elder) med.
fl. 9th century Ruhawi, Al- med.
fl. 10th century Natili, Al- med.
d. 1001 Shirazi, Abu ul-Ala med.
fl. 9th century Bukhtishu, Yuhanna ibn med.
c. 832 - c. 932 Solomon, Isaac Israeli ben (Isaac Israeli the Elder or Isaac Judaeus) med.
fl. 10th century Harawi, Abu Mansur Muvaffak (Muvaffak) med.
c. 944 - c. 994 Juljul, Ibn med.
fl. 930 Kaŝkarī, Al- med.
d. 975 Ash'ath, Ibn Abi al- med.
877 - 940 Eutychius, Patriarch [ ] of Alexandria (Sa'id ibn Batriq or Bitriq) med.
d. 1003 Baks, Ibrahim ibn med.
980 - 1037 Juzjani, Abu 'Ubayd al- med.
fl. 1288 Shahrazuri, Al- med.
1177 - 1241 Suri, Rashidun al- med.
fl. 12th century Vatvat, Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din med.
1186 - 1237 Maimon, Abraham ben Moses ben med.
1161 - 1242 Fadl, Da'ud Abu al- med.
1170 - 1230 Dakhwar, Al- med.
1203 - 1270 Usaibia, Ibn Abi med.
1160 - 1226 Judah, Joseph ben [ ] of Ceuta med.
1203 - 1283 Qazwini, Zakariya al- med.
d. 1222 Samarqandi, Najib ad-Din-e- med.
fl. 1335 Amuli, Muhammad ibn Mahmud med.
fl. 14th century Nagawri, Shahab al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Karim Qivam al- (al-Nagawri) med.
d. 1379 Aqsara'i, Jamal al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad (al-Aqsara'i) med.
d. 1403 Shirazi, Ali ibn Husayn Ansari (Zayn-e-Attar or Haji Zayn Attar) med.
fl. late 14th cen. Ilyas, Mansur ibn med.
fl. 14th century Jaghmini, Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Umar (al-Jaghmini) med.
fl. 1334 Sijzi, Mas'ud ibn Muhammad med.
d. 1330 Shirazi, Najm al-Din Mahmud ibn Ilyas al- med.
d. 1350 Nakhshabi, Ziya' al-Din (Nakhshabi) med.
d. 1357 Kazaruni, Sadid al-Din Muhammad ibn Mas'ud al- (Sadid al-Din al-Kazaruni) med.
fl. 1311 Kutubi, Yusuf ibn Ismail al- med.
1247 - 1318 Hamadani, Rashid-al-Din (Rashīd al-Dīn Tabīb) med.
b. 15th century Afif, Abu Sa'id al- med.
fl. 15th century Astarabadi, Muhammad Ali med.
fl. 15th century Isfahani, Husayni (Hondemir) med.
fl. 15th century Kermani, Burhan-ud-din med.
1385 - 1468 Sabuncuoglu, Serafeddin med.
d. 1542 Harawi, Muhammad ibn Yusuf al- med.
fl. 15th-16th cen. Nurbakhshi med.
fl. 15th century Thaleb, Shaykh Muhammad ibn med.
fl. 16th century Gilani, Hakim Ali ibn Kamal al-Din Muhammad (Hakim-e-Gilani) med.
1548 - 1610 Ghassani, Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al- med.
1526 - 1585 Ma'ruf, Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn (Takiyuddin) med.

See also


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 Pedersen, Olaf (1993). Early Physics and Astronomy: A Historical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 424. ISBN 0521408997. 
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